Wednesday, 29 February 2012

What is Aphasia? Is any treatment possible?

What is Aphasia?

Aphasia is a communication disorder. It is caused by some damage or injury of language parts in brain. It is extremely common in old citizens, mainly due to attack of a stroke. Aphasia has an effect on the capability of the person to understand or use dissimilar words though it does not harm his intelligence. People with aphasia can have trouble in communication and also in finding the "precise" words or clearly mentioning their thoughts. They can face troubles in writing words, understanding discussion, written or reading words and using numbers. Aphasia usually happens suddenly. It may also the result of head injury or stroke. It may also develop gradually with diseases like brain tumor, infection or dementia. Aphasia may also occur with speech disorders like dysarthria of speech.


Aphasia is usually rooted in damaged language area of brain caused by brain stroke. In stroke the blood does not arrive at a brain part. Brain cells turn out to be dead without the normal blood supply because it carries oxygen and also important nutrients. Some other brain damage causes comprise brain infections, Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors, stern blow on head as well as other conditions, which affect the brain.


The primary symptoms of aphasia are:

Trouble in speaking, struggle in finding appropriate word or term; making use of inappropriate and strange words during the conversation, troubles in understanding what other people are saying


Usually, Aphasia is initially diagnosed by the physician, who is treating the brain injury, generally a neurologist. The physician firstly carries out all the required tests. If there is chance of having aphasia, the patient is further referred to speech-language pathologist, who performs complete assessment of communication capabilities of the person. The assessment comprises convey ideas, person’s speaking abilities, writing abilities, language writing abilities and understanding.

Types of Aphasia

There are numerous types of the aphasia on hand.  Each type has its individual damaging effects to patient. Most common varieties of aphasia include as follows:

Anomic Aphasia
In anomic aphasia, the patient has difficulties in finding the word, which is called, Anomia. In this case the patient develops inability to find correct words for speaking and writing.

Expressive Aphasia
In expressive aphasia, the patient knows what he or she wants to speak but find difficulty in communicating with others.

Global Aphasia
This is most persistent of the aphasia types. It is generally seen after stroke. In global aphasia, patient finds difficulty in speaking and understanding words. Also patient is not able to write and read.

Primary Progressive Aphasia
It is a progressive disorder. With primary progressive aphasia, the patient loses ability to write, read, and talk. There is no treatment obtainable for treating primary progressive aphasia. People having prime progressive aphasia can correspond all the way through gestures.

Receptive Aphasia
In receptive aphasia, patient can hear a voice, but cannot realize the meaning. So usually patient with receptive aphasia have to utilize figurative language.


In most of cases, language recovery is not speedy enough. Several people with aphasia experience partial recovery, with a little language skill reappear after brain injury, but originally, fraction aphasia still remains. In circumstances like this, speech-language therapy might prove quite helpful. Factors which cause the improvement enormously are cause of brain damage, level of brain injury, region of brain damaged, individual’s health and age factor. Some other factors take account of individual’s health motivation and educational level.

Wednesday, 22 February 2012

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a disorder in which, the patient suffers from abdominal pain and cramping, changes of bowel movements and other symptoms. Other names of the IBS include mucous colitis, Irritable colon, Spastic colon, and Spastic colitis. IBS is different from the IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) that incorporates Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease. In the IBS, the bowel structure is not uncharacteristic.


Unfortunately, it is not clear why the IBS develops. Sometimes, it happens after intestine infections, also known as the post infectious IBS. The brain and intestine are connected with each other. The signals are interchange between the brain and the bowel. These signals have effects on bowel function as well as its symptoms. The nerves become more active with stress, and as a result, the intestines become more sensitive. IBS can arise at any age; though it usually starts in the teen age or in early adulthood. It is usually more existing in women than men, in fact the ratio is 2:1. Surveys say that in the U.S., 1 out of every 6 persons is suffering fro IBS. It is probably the most frequent intestinal problem, which forces the patients to visit a gastroenterologist.


Symptoms are generally moderate to severe. Mostly, the people have moderate symptoms. Symptoms are usually differing from one individual to another. The major symptoms of the IBS are abdominal fullness, pain, bloating, and gas that are available for at least 3 days every month for the last 3 months. The pain and other symptoms can frequently reduced or disappear after the bowel movement or occur when there is some alteration in how commonly you have bowel movement.

People suffering from IBS may switch between the diarrhea and constipation, with mainly having one or more. The people having diarrhea, frequently have loose and watery stools. They can frequently have urgent necessity to have the bowel movement, which may be hard to control. Those, who suffer from the constipation, may have hard time while passing the stool with less bowel movement. They may frequently need to strain or may feel cramps having the bowel movement. Usually, they do not make any stool or barely a small amount. For a few people, symptoms can get worsen for some weeks or one month, and then reduce for a while. People having IBS can also have loss of appetite.

Signs and Tests

Generally, the doctor can diagnose the IBS from the symptoms, with some or may be no tests. Eating the lactose-free diet for around 2 weeks may help the doctor to check for possible lactose deficit. No tests are accessible to diagnose IBS. The tests may be performed to eliminate the other problems are blood tests to see if the patient has anemia, as well as stool cultures to verify in case, there is some infection.
Some patients need to undergo colonoscopy. In colonoscopy, a bendable tube is inserted via anus to examine colon. You can require the test if:

  • Symptoms instigates later in the life over the age of 50
  • You have the symptoms like bloody stools or weight loss
  • You have the abnormal blood tests like low blood count

Other diseases, which may source similar symptoms, consist of:

  • Celiac disease
  • Colon cancer (This cancer hardly ever causes the typical IBS symptoms, except symptoms like blood in stools, weight loss, or the abnormal blood examinations are present)
  • Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease


The main purpose of the treatment of IBS is easing the symptoms slightly. Lifestyle changes can support in some cases of the IBS. For example, normal exercise with better sleep habits may reduce anxiety and support in relieving bowel symptoms. Dietary adjustments may also be supportive. However, no precise diet is recommended for this disease because the condition differs from one individual to another.

However, one can follow these things, which might help:

  • Avoid foods and drinks that stimulate intestines like colas, tea, or caffeine
  • Avoid heavy meals
  • Increase fiber in the diet because it will advance the constipation although may make bloating inferior
  • Consult your doctor before using any over-the-counter tablets

No drug works for every person. The medications your doctor might try include:

  • Anti cholinergic medications like hyoscyamine, dicyclomine, belladonna, and propantheline, to control spasms of intestine muscle
  • Bisacodyl to treat the constipation
  • Loperamide to treat the diarrhea
  • Tricyclic antidepressants in low doses to relieve the intestinal pain
  • Lubiprostone to treat constipation symptoms
  • Rifaximin as antibiotic

All these treatments may assist in cases of depression and severe anxiety.

Image Source: Picasaweb

Sunday, 29 January 2012

XTRAPRED – A topical ophthalmic solution for eyes

XTRAPRED – A topical ophthalmic solution for eyes

Prednisolone is the fluorinated carboxyquinolone in the suspension for the topical ophthalmic usage.


Prednisolone is the fluorinated carboxyquinolone in the suspension for the topical ophthalmic usage.


Prednisolone is the potent steroid in the topical form


XTRAPRED suspension is specified mainly for uveitis treatment. It can be also utilized in the steroid-responsive inflammation for bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, anterior, and cornea segment in the world. 

Dosage & Administration

You need to shake well before use. Infuse one drop into conjunctival sac with 2-4 times everyday. During the first 24-48 hours, dosing frequency can be increased if required. Care needs to be taken, however, not to discontinue the therapy prematurely. In case, the symptoms fail to get better after 1-2 days, patient needs to be re-evaluated.

Adverse Reaction

The most commonly reported drug-associated adverse reaction is temporary ocular discomfort or burning. Long-term adverse reactions incorporate, in the decreasing frequency order, increase of IOP (Intra Ocular Pressure), having possible glaucoma development or occasional optic nerve damage, subsequent sub capsular cataract arrangement, and deferred wound healing. Some other effects like conjunctivitis, Keratitis, mydriasis, corneal ulcers, and loss of accommodation, conjunctival hyperemia, with ptosis have infrequently been reported following the local usage of corticosteroids. The secondary ocular fungal development or the viral infection can be happened. Viral and fungal infections of cornea are predominantly prone to develop accidentally with the long-term steroid applications. The fungal invasion possibility should be measured in any of the determined corneal ulceration where the steroid treatment is used. Other reported adverse reactions consist of redness, itching, stinging, keratitis, chemical conjunctivitis, foreign body sensation, facial edema, blurred vision, photophobia, eye pain, tearing, and dryness. Exceptional reports of dizziness are also received.


Prolonged use of the corticosteroids can result into glaucoma with the damage to optic nerve, blemishes in visual acuity, posterior sub capsular cataract development, and fields of vision. Prolonged use can also suppress host immune response as well as increase secondary ocular infections hazards. Different ocular diseases as well as long-term usage of topical corticosteroids are known to source scleral and corneal thinning. Using topical corticosteroids with thin scleral or corneal tissue can result into perforation. Acute eye purulent infections can be masked or the activity enhanced by occurrence of the corticosteroid medication. In case, this product is utilized for more than 10 days, pressure of intraocular needs to be routinely monitored although it can be difficult in the children as well as uncooperative patients. The steroids need to be utilized with the caution in occurrence of glaucoma. Intraocular pressure needs to be checked commonly. It encloses the sodium bisulfite, the sulfite, which can cause the allergic-type reactions, with anaphylactic symptoms with life-threatening and less strict asthmatic episodes in definite susceptible people. Overall sulfite sensitivity prevalence in common population is probably low and unknown. Sulfite sensitivity is more frequently seen in asthmatics than in the non-asthmatic people. 

General: The primary renewal and prescription of medication order further than 20 milliliters of the XTRAPRED needs to be made by the physician after the patient examination with aid of exaggeration, like slit-lamp bio-microscopy, furthermore, where suitable, fluorescein staining. In case, the symptoms fail to get better after 2 days, patient needs to be re-evaluated. While the cornea fungal infections are mainly prone to develop accidentally with the long-term limited corticosteroid applications, the fungal invasion needs to be suspected within any constant corneal ulceration where the corticosteroid is used or in use. The fungal cultures need to be taken if applicable. If the product is utilized for more than 10 days, the intraocular pressure needs to be monitored Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Impairment of Fertility. No studies are conducted within the in humans or animals to evaluate possible for these effects. 

Use in pregnancy: No adequate as well as well-controlled studies are available for pregnant women. The XTRAPRED needs to be used during the pregnancy in case; the possible benefit justifies potential risk to fetus. 

Use in Lactation: This is unknown whether the topical ophthalmic management of the corticosteroids might result into sufficient systemic absorption for producing detectable quantities of breast milk. 

Use in Children: Effectiveness and safety in the pediatric patients are not established.

Image Source: Picasa

Saturday, 28 January 2012

Epilan: Very Effective Treatment of Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

Epilan: Very Effective Treatment of Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

Epilan is the composition of two formation-wise connected as well as proven anti-epileptic drugs, having assorted action mechanisms. This composition of Phenobarbitone with Phenytoin sodium is utilized for giving enough seizure controls in the patients. It is a fact that epileptic seizures can not be controlled using either drug only.


Every uncoated Epilan tablet comprises:

Phenytoin sodium 100 mg

Phenobarbitone 30 mg


The Epilan is used for controlling seizures in patients, who are suffering from grand mal seizures, generalized clonic seizures, or complex incomplete seizures as mono therapy alone is not sufficient for it.

Recommended Dosage

For seizures in adults: 1 tablet with 3 to 4 times on daily basis.

For seizures in children: For seizures in children, the dosage is different, as per the body weight. It ranges from Phenytoin sodium 4 to 8 mg every kg every day with phenobarbitone 3 to 5 mg every kg every day in the 2 to 3 evenly separate doses.


Therapeutic principle of the compound of the Phenytoin sodium with Phenobarbitone is relied on the these advantages.

The use of any drug compound is perfect for different diseases, which require continual management having aggregate drug therapy, anti epileptic compound of Phenytoin sodium and Phenobarbitone is made to cope with the distress of mono therapy as well as noncompliance inadequacy to get complete seizure control.

Several epilepsy patients possibly not react well to the mono therapy within recommended dosage; it can advocate higher drug dose, which could source undesirable side effects. All these patients react well if two drugs, having different mechanisms and actions, are used in combination. Phenytoin sodium has soothing effect on the neuronal membrane, which delays voltage channels of the dependent Na+ as part of main action mode; perhaps of greater value is its capability of facilitating the Na+ extrusion via nerve cells as well as forbidding intracellular accumulation for the action during the repetitive stimulation. Hence, it selectively cut down higher frequency discharges via some effect on regular neuronal discharges, which reduces Ca+ influx throughout neuronal depolarization as well. The Phenobarbitone is having decisive anti-convulsant activity that is not completely relied on its usual CNS depression result. It primarily helps GABA – intervened suppression for nerve cell movement via binding the GABA receptor or chloride-ionophore macromolecular-complex. Additionally, the Phenobarbitone also cut down nerve cell provocation via showing the anti-glutamate action. Overall, it boosts seizure beginning and limits spreading of the seizure discharge. Provided different mechanisms for action of the Phenytoin sodium as well as Phenobarbitone, the joint usage offers benefit of the outline for therapeutic effects that is a pharmacodynamic benefit.

The outline of these therapeutic effects are strengthened as it is a captivated risk disposition for development of undesired drug effects. Combined use of Phenytoin sodium with Phenobarbitone does not necessitate higher doses in separate drugs; hence the toxic effects that are ascribable for higher doses are deflected.

In aggregate drug routines when the drugs are utilize separately, it is steadily the risk of forgetting or skipping the doses of valued anti-epileptic. In those conditions of poor abidance not sufficient seizure restrain is unfortunate consequence. The dreadful scenario is the patient unsuspectingly makes up for missed dose via doubling succeeding dose. It could result into increased frequency of toxic outcomes. Those hateful situations in anti-epileptic therapy may be averted via combined usage of the Phenobarbitone and Phenytoin sodium that undoubtedly advances overall effectiveness and safety of drug combination.

Phenytoin sodium is generally administered to the adults with 100 mg strength, with equal to 400 mg per day, which is the upper limit. Daily dose for the normal adult of the Phenobarbitone is around 60 to 180 mg, with isolated doses. This dosage range from both Phenytoin sodium and Phenobarbitone, drug collection of the Phenytoin sodium in 100 mg as well as Phenobarbitone in 30 mg is scrupulously combined for the meeting standard of the therapeutic effectiveness and safety. Because this road can not necessitate higher individual drug doses, opposite to the mono therapy, the overall mutual use favors the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance.


The Epilan is extremely effective for the desired tolerability patients. The drug interactions can happen with the other anti-epileptic or other medications. Epilan is contra-indicated with the patients, who have history of restlessness, abnormal reactions, drug hypersensitivity, or the porphyria to phenobarbitone with other barbiturates, strong hepatic as well as renal impairment with the brutal myocardial dysfunction. The precaution advised during the pregnancy, elderly or seriously ill patients, gentle to medium hepatic or renal dysfunction or in the alcoholics as well as drug addicts.

Use during the pregnancy

Congenital deformities can occur to different anti-convulsants. On other hand, preventing anti-convulsant treatment all along the pregnancy can outcome into increased convulsions, status epilepticus, and abortion. Result of continuing or stopping the Epilan during the pregnancy has been taken on respective patient based after suitably weighing risk-benefit magnitude. Aggressiveness, anemia, confusion, depression, dyskinesia, hepatitis, irritation, rash, and sedation are established to occur within Epilan rarely. Gum hyperplasia can happen, especially with children. CNS effects incorporate ataxia, double vision, vertigo, and nystagmus. Agranulocytosis, intense skin reactions, or severe hepatitis may happen hardly.


Epilan is gettable in the packing of 50, 150, or 1000 tablets in plastic the bottle.